Sunday, 23 September 2012

NN Training Update

The next round of cross validation tests has shown that 600 to 1000 epochs per NN is the optimum number for training purposes. Also, the NN architecture has slightly evolved into having two output nodes in the output layer, one for each class in the binary NN classifier.

In an earlier post I said that I would use a hyperbolic tangent function as the activation functions, as per Y. LeCun (1998). The actual function from this paper is$$f(x) = 1.7159 tanh( (2/3) x )$$and its derivative is
$$f'(x) = (2*1.7159/3) ( 1 - tanh^2 ( (2/3) x) )$$I have written Octave functions for this and they are now being used in the final CV test to determine the optimum regularisation term to be used during NN training.

Thursday, 20 September 2012

NN Architecture CV Tests Complete

The cross validation test results are shown below, with the x-axis being the number of nodes in the hidden layer and the y-axis being the mean squared error of the trained NN (500 epochs) on the validation data set
and an enlarged view of x-axis values 20 to 30.

Basically what these charts say is that having more than 26 nodes in the hidden layer does not appreciably improve the performance of the NN. As a result, the final architecture of my proposed NNs will be 48 nodes in the input layer, 26 nodes in the hidden layer and 1 node in the output layer.

As an aside to all the above, I have just read an interesting paper entitled "Using Trading Dynamics to Boost Quantitative Strategy Performance," available from here. Some very interesting concepts that I shall probably get around to investigating in due course.

Wednesday, 19 September 2012

Neural Net Classifier Architecture Testing

Having successfully integrated the FANN library I've changed my mind as to the design of my neural net classifier. Previously I had planned to train a series of classifiers, each "tuned" to a specific measured period in the data, and each to discriminate between 5 distinct market types - my normal cyclic, uwr, unr, dwr and dnr as I've talked about in earlier posts.

Now, however, I'm working on a revised design that incorporates elements of a decision tree, where neural nets sit at interior nodes of the tree. A simple schematic is shown below
The advantage of this model is that I only have to train 5 neural nets, represented by the 5 colours in the above schematic, and each net is a binary classifier (-1 and 1) with only one node in its output layer, with a decision rule of > 0 or < 0 for the activation function. Rather than have one neural net per period, the period is now one of the features in the features input vector.

At the moment the features vector has a length of 48, and as I write this my computer is churning through a cross validation test (using the FANN library) to determine the optimum number of nodes for the single hidden layer(s) of the neural nets. Once this is complete, I plan to run another series of cross validation tests to determine the optimum number of epochs to run during training. When these are complete I shall then run one final cross validation test to determine the optimum lambda for a regularisation term. This last set of tests will use the Octave code previously used because, as far as I can see, FANN library functions do not appear to have this capability.

One slight change to this Octave code will be to use the Hyberbolic tangent as the activation function (see Y. LeCun 1998, available as paper 86 here). I may also try to implement some other tricks recommended in this paper.

Wednesday, 5 September 2012

Successful Integration of FANN

I am pleased to say that all my recent work seems to have borne fruit, and I have now managed to code up a training and testing routine in Octave that uses the FANN library and its Octave bindings. I think that this has been some of my most challenging coding work up to now, and required many hours of research on the web and forum help to complete.

I find that one frustration with using open source software is the sparse and sometimes non-existent documentation and this blog post is partly intended as a guide for those readers who may also wish to use FANN in Octave. The code in the code box below is roughly divided into these sections
• Octave code to index into and extract the relevant data from previously saved files
• a section that uses Perl to format this data
• the Octave binding code that actually implements the FANN library functions to set up and train a NN
• a short bit of code to save and then test the NN on the training data
As the code itself is heavily commented no further comment is required.
% load training_data_1.mat on command line before running this script.

clear exclusive -X -accurate_period -y

yy = eye(5)(y,:) ; % using training labels y, create an output vector suitable for NN training

period = input('Enter period of interest: ') ;

%for period = 10:50

fprintf('\nTraining for ANN period: %f\n', period ) ;

% This first switch control block creates the training data by indexing, by period, into them
switch (period)

case 10

% index using input period
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_train = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and same for market labels vector y
y_train = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;

% now index using input period plus 1 for test set
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period+1 ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_test = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
y_test = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;

train_data = [ X_train y_train ] ;
test_data = [ X_test y_test ] ;
detect_optima = train_data( (60:60:9000) , : ) ;

case 50

% index using input period
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_train = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and same for market labels vector y
y_train = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;

% now index using input period minus 1 for test set
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period-1 ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_test = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
y_test = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;

train_data = [ X_train y_train ] ;
test_data = [ X_test y_test ] ;
detect_optima = train_data( (60:60:9000) , : ) ;

otherwise

% index using input period
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_train = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and same for market labels vector y
y_train = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;

% now index using input period minus 1 for test set
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period-1 ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_test_1 = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and take every other value
X_test_1 = X_test_1( (2:2:9000) , : ) ;
% and same for market labels vector y
y_test_1 = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and take every other value
y_test_1 = y_test_1( (2:2:9000) , : ) ;

% now index using input period plus 1 for test set
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period+1 ) ;
% extract the relevant part of X using above i_X index
X_test_2 = X( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and take every other value
X_test_2 = X_test_2( (2:2:9000) , : ) ;
% and same for market labels vector y
y_test_2 = yy( [i_X] , : ) ;
% and take every other value
y_test_2 = y_test_2( (2:2:9000) , : ) ;

train_data = [ X_train y_train ] ;
test_data = [ [ X_test_1 y_test_1 ] ; [ X_test_2 y_test_2 ] ] ;
detect_optima = train_data( (60:60:9000) , : ) ;

endswitch % end of training data indexing switch

% now write this selected period data to -ascii files
save data_for_training -ascii train_data
save data_for_testing -ascii test_data
save detect_optima -ascii detect_optima % for use in Fanntool software

%************************************************************************
% Now the FANN training code !                                          *
%************************************************************************

% First set the parameters for the FANN structure
No_of_input_layer_nodes = 102
No_of_hidden_layer_nodes = 102
No_of_output_layer_nodes = 5
Total_no_of_layers = length( [ No_of_input_layer_nodes No_of_hidden_layer_nodes No_of_output_layer_nodes ] )

% save and write this FANN structure info and length of training data file into an -ascii file - "train_nn_from_this_file"
fid = fopen( 'train_nn_from_this_file' , 'w' ) ;
fprintf( fid , ' %i %i %i\n ' , length(train_data) , No_of_input_layer_nodes , No_of_output_layer_nodes ) ;
fclose(fid) ;

% now create the FANN formatted training file - "train_nn_from_this_file"
system( "perl perl_file_manipulate.pl >train_nn_from_this_file" ) ;

%{
The above call to "system" interupts, or pauses, Octave at this point. Now the "shell" or "bash"
takes over and calls a Perl script, "perl_file_manipulate.pl", with the command line arguments
">train_nn_from_this_file", where < indicates that the file "data_for_training"
is to be read by the Perl script and >> indicates that the file "train_nn_from_this_file" is to be
appended by the Perl script. From the fopen and fclose operations above the file to be appended contains only
FANN structure info, e.g. 9000 102 5 on one line, and the file that is to be read is the training data of NN features
and outputs extracted by the switch control structure above and written to -ascii files. The contents of the Perl
script file are:

#!/usr/bin/env perl

while (<>) {
my @f = split ;
print("@f[0..\$#f-5]\n@f[-5..-1]\n") ;
}

After these Perl operations the file "train_nn_from_this_file" is correctly formatted for the FANN library calls that
are to come
e.g. the file looks like this:-

9000 102 5
-2.50350699e-09 -2.52301858e-09 -2.50273727e-09 -2.44301942e-09 -2.34482961e-09 -2.20974520e-09
0.00000000e+00 0.00000000e+00 0.00000000e+00 0.00000000e+00 1.00000000e+00
etc.

When all this Perl script stuff is finished control returns to Octave.
%}

%***************************************************************************
% Begin FANN training ! Hurrah !                                           *
%***************************************************************************
% create the FANN
ANN = fann_create( [ No_of_input_layer_nodes No_of_hidden_layer_nodes No_of_output_layer_nodes ] ) ;

% create the parameters for training the FANN in an Octave "struct." All parameters are explicitly stated and set to the
% the default values. If not explicitly stated they would be these values anyway, but are explicitly stated just to show
% how this is done
NN_PARAMS = struct( "TrainingAlgorithm", 'rprop', "LearningRate", 0.7, "ActivationHidden", 'Sigmoid', "ActivationOutput", 'Sigmoid',...
"ActivationSteepnessHidden", 0.5, "ActivationSteepnessOutput", 0.5, "TrainErrorFunction", 'TanH', "QuickPropDecay", -0.0001,...
"QuickPropMu", 1.75, "RPropIncreaseFactor", 1.2, "RPropDecreaseFactor", 0.5, "RPropDeltaMin", 0.0, "RPropDeltaMax", 50.0 )

% and then set the parameters
fann_set_parameters( ANN , NN_PARAMS ) ;

% now train the FANN on data contained in file "train_nn_from_this_file"
fann_train( ANN, 'train_nn_from_this_file', 'MaxIterations', 200, 'DesiredError', 0.001, 'IterationsBetweenReports', 10 )

% save the trained FANN in a file e.g. "ann_25.net"
fann_save( ANN , [ "ann_" num2str(period) ".net" ] )

% Now test the ANN on the test_data set
% create ANN from saved fann_save file
ANN = fann_create( [ "ann_" num2str(period) ".net" ] ) ;

% run the trained ANN on the original feature training set, X_train
X_train_FANN_results = fann_run( ANN , X_train ) ;

% convert the X_train_FANN_results matrix to a single prediction vector
[dummy, prediction] = max( X_train_FANN_results, [], 2 ) ;

% compare accuracy of this NN prediction vector with the known labels in y for this period and display
[i_X j_X] = find( accurate_period(:,1) == period ) ;
fprintf('\nTraining Set Accuracy: %f\n', mean( double( prediction == y([i_X],:) ) ) * 100 ) ;
fprintf('End of training for ANN period: %f\n', period ) ;

%end % end of period for loop

Typical terminal output during the running of this code looks like this:

octave:143> net_train_octave
Enter period of interest: 25
Max epochs      200. Desired error: 0.0010000000.
Epochs            1. Current error: 0.2537834346. Bit fail 45000.
Epochs           10. Current error: 0.1802092344. Bit fail 20947.
Epochs           20. Current error: 0.0793143436. Bit fail 7380.
Epochs           30. Current error: 0.0403240845. Bit fail 5215.
Epochs           40. Current error: 0.0254898760. Bit fail 2853.
Epochs           50. Current error: 0.0180807728. Bit fail 1611.
Epochs           60. Current error: 0.0150692556. Bit fail 1414.
Epochs           70. Current error: 0.0119200321. Bit fail 1187.
Epochs           80. Current error: 0.0091521516. Bit fail 937.
Epochs           90. Current error: 0.0073408978. Bit fail 670.
Epochs          100. Current error: 0.0060765576. Bit fail 492.
Epochs          110. Current error: 0.0051601632. Bit fail 446.
Epochs          120. Current error: 0.0041675218. Bit fail 386.
Epochs          130. Current error: 0.0036309268. Bit fail 374.
Epochs          140. Current error: 0.0032380833. Bit fail 343.
Epochs          150. Current error: 0.0028855132. Bit fail 302.
Epochs          160. Current error: 0.0025165526. Bit fail 280.
Epochs          170. Current error: 0.0022868335. Bit fail 253.
Epochs          180. Current error: 0.0021089041. Bit fail 220.
Epochs          190. Current error: 0.0019043182. Bit fail 197.
Epochs          200. Current error: 0.0017739790. Bit fail 169.

Training for ANN period: 25.000000
No_of_input_layer_nodes =  102
No_of_hidden_layer_nodes =  102
No_of_output_layer_nodes =  5
Total_no_of_layers =  3
NN_PARAMS =

scalar structure containing the fields:

TrainingAlgorithm = rprop
LearningRate =  0.70000
ActivationHidden = Sigmoid
ActivationOutput = Sigmoid
ActivationSteepnessHidden =  0.50000
ActivationSteepnessOutput =  0.50000
TrainErrorFunction = TanH
QuickPropDecay = -1.0000e-04
QuickPropMu =  1.7500
RPropIncreaseFactor =  1.2000
RPropDecreaseFactor =  0.50000
RPropDeltaMin = 0
RPropDeltaMax =  50

Training Set Accuracy: 100.000000
End of training for ANN period: 25.000000

The accuracy obtained on all periods from 10 to 50 is at least 98%, with about two thirds being 100%. However, the point of this post is not to show results of any one set of NN features or training parameters, but rather that I can now be more productive by using the speed and flexibility of FANN in the development of my NN market classifier.