Following on from the previous post, the test I outlined in that post wasn't very satisfactory, which I put down to the fact that the Sigmoid transformation of the raw MFE/MAE indicator values is not amenable to the application of standard deviation as a meaningful measure. Instead, I changed the test to one based on the standard error of the mean, an example screen shot of which is shown below:-

The top pane shows the the long version of the indicator and the bottom pane the short version. In each there are upper and lower limits of the sample standard error of the mean above and below the population mean (mean of all values of the indicator) along with the cumulative mean value of the top N matches as shown on the x-axis. In this particular example it can be seen that around the 170-180 samples mark the cumulative mean moves inside the standard error limits, never to leave them again. The meaning I ascribe to this is that there is no value to be gained from using more than approximately 180 samples for machine learning purposes, for this example, as to use more samples would be akin to training on all available data, which makes the use of my Cauchy Schwarz matching algo superfluous. I repeated the above on all instances of sigmoid transformed and untransformed MFE/MAE indicator values to get an average of 325 samples for transformed, and an average of 446 samples for the untransformed indicator values across the 4 major forex pairs. Based on this, I have decided to use the top 450 Cauchy Schwarz matches for training purposes, which has ramifications for model complexity will be discussed shortly.

Returning to the above screen shot, the figure 2 inset shows the price bars that immediately follow the price bar for which the main screen shows the top N matches. Looking at the extreme left of the main screen it can be seen that the lower pane, short indicator has an almost maximum reading of 1 whilst the upper pane, long indicator shows a value of approx. 2.7, which is not much above the global minimum for this indicator and well below the 0.5 neutral level. This strongly suggests a short position, and looking at the inset figure it can be seen that over the 3 days following the extreme left matched bar a short position was indeed the best position to hold. This is a pattern that seems to frequently present itself during visual inspection of charts, although I am unable to quantify this in any way.

On the matter of model complexity alluded to above, I found the Learning From Data course I have recently completed on the edX platform to be very enlightening, particularly the concept of the VC dimension, which is nicely explained in the Learning From Data Video library. I'll leave it to interested readers to follow the links, but the big take away for me is that using 450 samples as described above implies that my final machine learning model must have an upper bound of approximately 45 on the VC dimension, which in turn implies a maximum of 45 weights in the neural net. This is a design constraint that I will discuss in a future post.

## Thursday, 11 December 2014

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